Virulent Newcastle disease - Wikipedia

 

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Virulent Newcastle disease (VND), formerly exotic Newcastle disease, is a contagious viral avian disease affecting many domestic and wild bird species; it is transmissible to humans. Its effects are most notable in domestic poultry due to their high susceptibility and the potential for severe impacts of an epizootic on the poultry streegtbikei.cf: Monjiviricetes. It is the cultural framework that tells scientists what they should turn their attention to, and in this article I have been suggesting that bio-medicine's contemporary power means that it can no longer adopt ambient ideas about disease and disability without running into tricky areas of Cited by: Infectious Diseases articles covering symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up. Peer reviewed and up-to-date recommendations written by leading experts.


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Virulent Newcastle disease VNDformerly exotic Newcastle disease[1] is a contagious viral avian disease affecting many domestic and wild bird species; it is transmissible to humans. Its effects are most notable in domestic poultry due to their high susceptibility and the potential for severe impacts of disease article epizootic on the poultry industries.

It is endemic to many countries. Disease article of humans to infected birds for example in poultry processing plants can cause mild conjunctivitis and influenza -like symptoms, but the Newcastle disease virus NDV otherwise poses no hazard to human health. No treatment for NDV is known, but the use of prophylactic vaccines [3] and sanitary measures reduces the likelihood of outbreaks.

Newcastle disease was first identified in Java, disease article, Indonesia, inand inin Newcastle-upon-TyneEngland whence it got its name, disease article. However, it may have been prevalent as early aswhen a disease wiped out all the domestic fowl in northwest Scotland, disease article.

The policy of slaughter ceased in England and Wales on 31 Marchexcept for the peracute form of Newcastle disease and for fowl plague. In Scotland the slaughter policy continued for all types of fowl pest. Interest in the use of NDV as an anticancer agent has arisen from the ability of NDV to selectively kill human tumour cells with limited toxicity to normal disease article. Transmission occurs by exposure to faecal and other excretions from infected birds, and through contact with contaminated food, water, equipment, and clothing.

NDV strains can be categorised as velogenic highly virulentmesogenic intermediate virulenceor lentogenic nonvirulent, disease article. Lentogenic strains produce mild signs with negligible mortality. Inpromising results were reported using an attenuated strain of the Newcastle virus, code named MTH, disease article cancer patients [9] by researchers who had isolated the strain in The researchers suggested in cells that resist the normal inducement of apoptosis when infected will give NDV more time to incubate in cell and spread.

Many cancer cells will overexpress antiapoptotic factors as part of tumor development. This mechanism of delaying apoptosis in abnormal cells gives NDV the specificity it needs to be an efficient cancer-fighting oncolytic virus.

Though the oncolytic effect of NDV was documented already in the s, the main advances of disease article in cancer therapy came with the advent of reverse genetics technologies [14] [15] With these new possibilities, studies of modified NDV strains with enhanced cancer-treatment properties have been put on the agenda.

Promising results were discovered with proteins associated to the adaptive immune system, which disease article the way for possibilities to disease article NDV to create a tumor-associated antigen.

NDV possesses many unique anticancer properties and thereby provides an excellent base in virotherapy research. NDV has selectivity on oncogenic cells, where it replicates without, or in a less pronounced way, disease article normal cells. The precise way in which the presence of NDV induces tumor cell death remains to be clarified and may show variation regarding the strains of NDV used and which type of cancer is targeted.

The results [17] also indicate the extrinsic pathway is activated by TNF-related, apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced, disease article, NDV-mediated apoptosis in a late stage. NDV has aggregating properties causing syncytia formations of tumor cells, which, apart from amplifying immune-based cell killing, also results in necrosis of cells. NDV is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and the bodily discharges of infected birds.

The disease is transmitted through infected birds' droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes. NDV spreads rapidly among birds kept in confinement, such as commercially raised chickens. High concentrations of the NDV are found in birds' bodily discharges; therefore, the disease can be spread easily by mechanical means.

Virus-bearing material can be picked up on shoes and clothing and carried from an infected flock to disease article healthy one. NDV can survive for several weeks in a warm and humid environment on disease article feathers, manure, and other materials. It can survive indefinitely in frozen disease article. However, the virus is destroyed rapidly by dehydration and by the ultraviolet rays in sunlight.

Amazon parrots are carriers of the disease, disease article, but do not show symptoms, and are capable of shedding NDV for more than days, disease article. Signs disease article infection with NDV vary greatly depending on factors such as the strain of virus and the health, age disease article species of the host.

The incubation period for the disease ranges from 4 to 6 days. An infected bird may exhibit several signs, including respiratory signs gasping, coughingnervous signs depression, inappetence, disease article, muscular tremors, drooping wings, twisting disease article head and neck, circling, complete paralysisswelling of the tissues around the eyes and neck, greenish, watery diarrhea, disease article, misshapen, rough- or thin-shelled eggs and reduced egg production.

In acute cases, disease article, the death is very sudden, and, in the beginning of the outbreak, the remaining birds do not seem to be sick. In flocks with good immunity, however, the signs respiratory and digestive are mild and progressive, disease article, and are followed after 7 days by nervous symptoms, especially twisted heads, disease article.

Torticollis in a mallard. Petechiae in the proventriculus and on the submucosae of the gizzard are typical; also, severe enteritis of the duodenum occurs. The lesions are scarce in hyperacute cases first day of outbreak. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaypolymerase chain reactionand sequence technology tests have been developed. For routine isolation of NDV from chickens, turkeys, and other birds, samples are obtained by swabbing the trachea and the cloaca.

Cotton swabs can be used. The virus can also be isolated from the lungs, brain, spleen, liver, and kidneys. Samples must be shipped in a padded envelope or box, disease article. Samples may be sent by regular mail, but overnight is recommended. Any animals showing symptoms of Newcastle disease should be isolated immediately.

New birds should also be vaccinated before being introduced to a flock. An inactivated viral vaccine is available, as well as various combination vaccines. From Wikipedia, disease article, the free encyclopedia. Contagious viral disease article disease. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.

June United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 6 April disease article California Department of Food and Agriculture. Anticancer Research. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, disease article. Journal of Virology, disease article. The Oncologist. Flanagan et al. Cancer Research. Molecular Therapy. Gene Therapy. Molecular Medicine Disease article, Massachusetts.

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The Scientist's articles tagged with: infectious disease. Researchers aim to deploy the trial in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo, which has been ravaged by Ebola for a year. It is the cultural framework that tells scientists what they should turn their attention to, and in this article I have been suggesting that bio-medicine's contemporary power means that it can no longer adopt ambient ideas about disease and disability without running into tricky areas of Cited by: Sep 05,  · Read the latest medical research on the prevention, management, and treatment of infectious diseases. Read articles on HINI, influenza, C. difficile, HIV .